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Glossary

Definitions

Alberta Electric System Operator
The Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) is the independent, not-for-profit organization responsible for the safe, reliable and economic planning and operation of the Alberta electric system.


Alberta Utilities Commission
The Alberta Utilities Commission (AUC) ensures the fair and responsible delivery of Alberta’s utility services. AltaLink submits applications for new transmission projects to the AUC and the AUC reviews them in a public process.


Alternating Current (AC)
A current that flows alternately in one direction and then in the reverse direction. In North America, the standard for alternating current is 60 complete cycles each second. Such electricity is said to have a frequency of 60 hertz. Alternating current is used in power systems because it can be transmitted and distributed more economically than direct current.


Ancillary Services
Services necessary to support transmission of capacity and energy from resources to load while maintaining reliable operation of the transmission system.


Available Energy Capacity (AEC)
The amount of available energy on a transmission system.


Base Load
The minimum continuous load over a given period of time. Base load generating stations operate essentially at full output whenever possible.


Bulk Electricity
Large amounts of electric power at transmission voltages, generally to run industrial plants and operations.


Capacity
In the electric power industry, capacity has two meanings:

  1. System Capacity: The maximum power capability of a system. For example, a utility system might have a rated capacity of 5000 megawatts, or might sell 50 megawatts of capacity.
  2. Equipment Capacity: The maximum power capability of piece of equipment. For example, a generating unit might have a rated capacity of 50 megawatts.

 


Capacitor bank
Capacitor banks regulate the voltage within a substation and help ensure the safety and reliability of the electric system.


Circuit
A circuit is a group of wires that electricity flows through. The wires are strung along power line structures. Transmission line structures can be described as single or double circuit. In a single circuit transmission line, three sets of wires are strung along the transmission structures. In a double circuit transmission line, six sets of wires are strung along the transmission structures.


Circuit breaker
Circuit breakers are electrical switches inside a substation that protect substation equipment. Circuit breakers help ensure the safety and reliability of the electric system.


Conventional Generation
Electricity that is produced at a generating station where the prime movers are driven by gases or steam produced by burning fossil fuels.


Current
The flow of electricity in a conductor. Current is measured in amperes.


Deregulation
Deregulation is the process by which governments removes selected regulations on business in order to (in theory) encourage the efficient operation of markets. The theory is that less regulation will lead to a raised level of competitiveness, therefore higher productivity, more efficiency and lower prices overall.


Direct Current (DC)
Current that flows continuously in the same direction (as opposed to alternating current). The current supplied from a battery is direct current.


Distribution
The process of transporting electric energy from the high voltage transmission grid directly to retail customers, generally on lines of 25 kV or less.


Distribution line
After transmission lines bring the electricity from power plants to substations and the voltage is reduced, distribution lines carry the lower voltage electricity to your homes, farms and businesses.


Electrical Energy
The quantity of electricity delivered over a period of time. The commonly used unit of electrical energy is the kilowatt-hour (kWh).


Electric grid
Alberta’s electric grid is comprised of power plants, thousands of kilometres of power lines (high-voltage transmission lines and lower voltage distribution lines) and hundreds of substations. The electric grid works behind the scenes 24 hours a day to keep your lights on.


Electrical Power
The rate of delivery of electrical energy and the most frequently used measure of capacity. The basic unit is the kilowatt (kW).


Exchange
The transfer and return of electricity from one utility to another at different time periods or seasons to achieve a more economic or efficient overall system operation. Such transfers are possible because of differences in electricity demand, generation resource capability or system operating characteristics.


Facilities Application
AltaLink submits Facilities Applications to the AUC for review. A Facilities Application describes how AltaLink proposes to meet the requirement for a transmission project. It includes routing details, results of the participant involvement program and technical details. Facilities Applications must be approved by the AUC before construction can begin.


Facilities Study
An engineering study conducted by the Transmission Facility Owner to determine the required modifications to the grid, including the cost and scheduled completion date for such modifications, that will be required to provide the requested transmission service.


Frequency
The number of cycles through which an alternating current passes in a second. The North American standard is 60 cycles per second, known as 60 hertz.


Generation
The process of converting thermal, mechanical, chemical or nuclear energy into electric energy.


Grid
A network of electric power lines and connections.


Hertz (Hz)
The unit of frequency for alternating current. Formerly called cycles per second. The standard frequency for power supply in North America is 60 Hz.


ISO
Independent System Operator.


Interconnected System
A system consisting of two or more individual power systems connected together by tie lines.


Intertie (Interutility Tieline)
Transmission circuit used to tie or inter-connect two load areas of two utility systems.


Joule
The work required to produce one watt of power for one second, or one "watt second" (W-s).


Kilovolt (kV)
A kilovolt is equal to one thousand volts and is commonly used when describing transmission and distribution lines. AltaLink’s transmission lines range from 69 kV (69,000 volts) to 500 kV (500,000 volts). Light bulbs typically range from 120 to 300 volts.


Kilowatt (kW)
The commercial unit of electric power; 1000 watts. A kilowatt can best be visualized as the total amount of power needed to light ten 100 watt light bulbs.


Kilowatt hour (kWh)
The commercial unit of electric energy; 1000 watt hours. A kilowatt hour can best be visualized as the amount of electricity consumed by ten 100-watt light bulbs burning for an hour. One kilowatt hour is equal to 3.6 million joules.


Load
The total amount of electricity required to meet customer demand at any moment. The load equation fluctuates depending on electricity use throughout any given day.


Load Factor
The ratio of the average load during a designated period to the peak or maximum load in that same period. Usually expressed in per cent.


Load Forecast
The anticipated amount of electricity required by customers in the future.


Megawatt (MW)
A unit of bulk power; 1000 kilowatts.


Megawatt hour (MW.h)
A unit of bulk energy; 1000 kilowatt hours


Needs Application
The AESO submits Needs Applications to the AUC for review. A Needs Application describes why a transmission project is required. The AUC may review a Needs Application at the same time it reviews a Facilities Application, or may review each application separately. The AUC must approve a Needs Application before construction can begin.


Need Study
An engineering study conducted by the Electric System Operator to determine the required modifications to the grid, including the cost, that will be required to meet the need of customers on the transmission system.


Point of Delivery (POD)
Point on the transmission provider's transmission system where the transmission grid connects to a receiving party for the delivery of electricity.


Point of Receipt (POR)
Point on the transmission provider's transmission system where the grid connects to a generator for the loading of electricity on to the transmission system.


Power plant
Power plants convert various forms of energy into electric power. The transmission system connects diverse sources of power generation including wind, high-efficiency coal, natural gas and more. The transmission system always meets the demand for power with the lowest-priced generation in the province, meaning you’re powering your home with the most cost-effective power at any given time.


Power System
The interconnected facilities of an electrical utility. A power system includes the generation, transmission, distribution, transformation, and protective components necessary to provide service.


Radio Site
Typical radio sites house a telecommunications tower and a control building within a fenced enclosure. The telecommunications equipment transmits data to our system control centre, allowing us to monitor the operation of the electric system and ensure the safety and reliability of the system for our customers.


Regulator
Regulators ensure voltages remain stable and do not fluctuate within a substation. Regulators help ensure the safety and reliability of the electric system.


Reserve Generating Capacity
The extra generating capacity required on any power system over and above the expected peak load. Such a reserve is required mainly for two reasons: (i) in case of an unexpected breakdown of generating equipment; (ii) in case the actual peak load is higher than forecast.


Right-of-way
The right-of-way is a strip of land required for the construction and operation of a transmission line. A right-of-way refers to the physical space a transmission line encompasses including areas on either side of the line. For this project, there are development restrictions beyond the edge of the right-of-way or there are no development restrictions beyond the right-of-way.


Substation
Substations are the connection point between high-voltage transmission lines and the lower voltage power lines (called distribution lines) that connect directly to homes and businesses.

After a transmission line brings power to a substation, its voltage is reduced so it can be transported safely and efficiently to you.


Switchgear building
Switchgear buildings house electrical equipment like cables, switches and breakers. Switchgear buildings ensure the equipment is protected from potential weather damage helping to ensure a reliable source of electricity is available for years to come.


Switching station
Switching stations connect two or more transmission lines so power can be re-routed and transported across the province to where it’s needed.


System Impact Study
An assessment by the transmission provider of: (i) the adequacy of the transmission system to accommodate a transmission request for either Firm Point-to-Point Transmission Service or Network Integration Transmission Service; and (ii) whether any additional costs may be incurred in order to provide transmission service


Telecommunications tower
Telecommunications towers support equipment that transmits data to our system control centre. This allows us to monitor the operation of the electric system and ensure the safety and reliability of the system for our customers.


Transformer
Transformers step down the voltage in a substation so power can be distributed safely to your community through distribution lines. Transformers also step up the voltage so power can be transmitted through transmission lines.


Transmission
Transmission lines make up Alberta’s electric highway, linking the places where power is generated to where power is used. Transmission lines transport large amounts of power over long distances across the province. The transmission system connects diverse sources of power generation including wind, high-efficiency coal, natural gas and more.


Transmission System
The facilities owned, controlled or operated by the transmission provider that are used to provide transmission service.


Transmission Must Run (TMR)
Generation that was introduced to the Alberta market to support the over-burdened transmission system caused by the expanding demand of the southern region of the province.

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